Scientific activity of V.M. Glushkov Glushkov Viktor Mikhailovich

Scientific activity of V.M. Glushkov

Outstanding scientist of the 20th century, pioneer informatics and cybernetics, ideologist of the digital state, Academician of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR&nbsp ;Victor Mikhailovich Glushkov (1923-1982) fields of science of their own schools.  

The main directions of scientific activity of V.M. Glushkov

An outstanding scientist of the XX century, a pioneer of computer science and cybernetics, an ideologist of the digital state, Academician Viсtor Mikhailovich Glushkov (1923-1982) is known for his scientific results of world significance in mathematics, computer science and cybernetics, computer engineering and programming, the creation of his own schools in these fields of science. In 1996, the international organization IEEE Computer Society posthumously awarded V.M. Glushkov the "Computer Pioneer" medal for the development of the theory of digital automata and the creation of multiprocessor macroconveyor supercomputers. This section describes the most significant contribution made by V.M. Glushkov in the following areas:

  • theory of topological groups and topological algebra in general;
  • theory of digital automata;
  • programming theory and algorithmic algebra systems;
  • theory of design of electronic computers;
  • creation of computer equipment: new architectures of computers and computer systems, general purpose control computers, minicomputers, supercomputers;
  • creation of automated control systems for technological processes and industrial enterprises, industrial and republican automated control systems;
  • development of the world's first integrated digital state project - a nationwide automated system for collecting and processing information for accounting, planning and management of the national economy (OGAS);
  • cybernetics as the science of general laws, principles and methods of information processing and management in complex systems;
  • artificial intelligence, computer science and issues of information society development.

Solution of the fifth generalized Hilbert problem

In 1952, V. M. Glushkov's attention was attracted byHilbert's fifth problem related tothe theory of topological groups, which was posed by the famous German mathematician in 1900 among the 23 most complex problems of mathematics. It is known that the solution of every Hilbert problem became a sensation in world science. Some particular problems related to this problem were solved by 1952[1]. However, by this time a generalized fifth Hilbert problem had been formulated in topology theory, and V.M. Glushkov managed to solve it by continuously working for three years. The solution of the generalized fifth Hilbert problem was the subject of V.M. Glushkov's doctoral dissertation on"Topological locally nilpotent groups", which he defended in 1955 at Moscow University, being seconded to the doctoral program of the largest specialist in higher algebra,Professor A.G. Kurosh. Received by V. M. Glushkov's mathematical results brought him among the leading algebraists of the world, the solution of the generalized fifth Hilbert problem, the study of the properties and structure of locally bicompact groups and Lie algebras allowed him to significantly develop the theory of topological groups and topological algebra in general.

Management of the Institute of Cybernetics of the Academy of Sciences of the Ukrainian SSR

After the successful defense of his doctoral dissertation, V.M. Glushkov received several job offers and chose the one that was associated with the development of computer technology, cybernetics, computer science and applied mathematics. From August 1956, V. M. Glushkov lived and worked in Kyiv. Here he headed the Laboratory of Computer Science and Mathematics of the Institute of Mathematics of the Academy of Sciences of the Ukrainian SSR, previously created by S.A. Lebedev and known for her pioneering developments of computers MESM and SESM.  In 1957 V.M. Glushkov headed Computer Center of the Academy of Sciences of the Ukrainian SSR with the rights of a research organization. Five years later, in December 1962, the  Institute of Cybernetics of the Academy of Sciences of the Ukrainian SSR was organized on the basis of the Computing Center of the Academy of Sciences of the Ukrainian SSR, with V.M. Glushkov as its permanent director. Under his leadership, the Institute of Cybernetics became the largest research and design center in the USSR in the field of informatics, cybernetics, computer technology and management information systems.

V.M. Glushkov Institute of Cybernetics of the Academy of Sciences of the Ukrainian SSR.

V.M.Glushkov's contribution to the theory of digital automata

V.M. Glushkov's scientific activity in the period 1956-1982 was connected with the theory of computer science, cybernetics, computer engineering, programming and management information systems and was based on a powerful foundation of domestic mathematical schools. The starting point for V. M. Glushkov's work in the field ofthe theory of digital automata was the concept of an automaton, introduced by American mathematicians Kleene, Moore and other authors of the famous collection "Automata", published in 1956 at Princeton and published in Russian the same year. At the very beginning of his work in this field , V. M. Glushkov found a much more elegant, algebraically simple and logically clear concept of the Kleene automaton and obtained all the results of the Kleene. V.M. Glushkov understood that due to its great generality, the theory of automata can be applied to develop models of cybernetic systems in a wide variety of applied fields. At the seminar on automata theory organized by V.M. Glushkov, both general issues of this theory and practical issues of synthesis of circuits of the«Kiev» computer, which was then being designed in the laboratory of V. M. Glushkov, were discussed. Participants of this seminarYu.V. Kapitonova, A.A. Letichevsky and others in the future formed the core of the V.M. Glushkov school in the field of design theory of digital computers.

The main idea uniting the work on digital automata was the possibility of using an algebraic apparatus to represent such objects as computer components, circuits and programs. V.M. Glushkov developed this idea and, most importantly, built the necessary mathematical tools and showed how computer components can be represented through algebraic expressions. Another idea of V.M. Glushkov was connected with the possibility of transformation of algebraic expressions. At the same time, such transformations reflected the processes of work of engineers and programmers on computer circuits and programs. It was this circumstance that made it possible to find adequate models of computer components and manipulate them in the design and manufacturing process.

In 1961, V. M. Glushkov's famousmonograph "Synthesis of Digital Automata" was published, later translated into English and published in the USA and other countries.

Another important theoretical work"Abstract theory of automata" was published by V.M. Glushkov in 1961 in the journal "Success of Mathematical Sciences". It created the basis for works on the theory of automata involving algebraic methods. In 1964, for a series of works on the theory of automata, V. M. Glushkov was awarded the Lenin Prize.

At the rally on the occasion of the award of V.M. Glushkov Lenin Prize, on the left Paton B.E. President of the Academy of Sciences of the Ukrainian SSR. V.M. Glushkov in the center. On the right, Derkach V.P.

It is difficult to overestimate the significance of these works, since the use of the concept of "automaton" as a mathematical abstraction of the structure and processes occurring inside computing machines has opened up completely new possibilities in computer creation technology. Modern computer design automation systems use these ideas everywhere.

In 1964, V. M. Glushkov was elected a full member of the USSR Academy of Sciences in the Department of Mathematics (Mathematics, including computational Mathematics).

V.M. Glushkov's contribution to the theory of programming and systems of algorithmicalgebras

In the field of programming theory and systems of algorithmic algebras, V.M. Glushkov made a fundamental contribution in the form of the algebra of regular events. These results were published by him in 1961 in the journal "Successes of Mathematical Sciences" and in 1965 in the journal "Cybernetics". The apparatus of algorithmic algebra systems (SAA) was developed, which is a two-base algebraic system consisting of a generative algebra of operators and an algebra of three-valued logical conditions. As part of the development of this theory, V.M. Glushkov anticipated theconcept of structural programming proposed byDijkstra in 1968, and proved the fundamental theorem on regularization (reduction to a structured form) of an arbitrary algorithm, in particular a program or firmware. Initially, algorithmic algebra systems were used by V.M. Glushkov to describe firmware. To this end, he proposed an abstract computer model representing the interaction of two automata — a control and an operating one. The automatic interaction scheme adopted in the abstract computer model could be extended to the case of arbitrary cybernetic systems, which makes it possible to formalize their functioning using the apparatus of algorithmic algebra systems. The Glushkov regularization theorem mentioned above was not noticed and understood in a timely manner, later it was overlapped within the framework of structural programming.

The monograph by V. M. Glushkov, G. E. Tseitlin and E. L. Yushchenko "Algebra, languages, programming", containing an introduction to the theory of universal algebras, taking into account the application of this apparatus in theoretical programming, was published in 1974. It is important to emphasize that in connection with research on the formalization of languages, verification of programs and their optimization at the junction of mathematical logic and programming theory in the mid-70s, a new direction in algorithmic (program) logic and process logic emerged. The prototype of propositional programming logics were the systems of algorithmic algebras studied by V.M. Glushkov.The Kiev School (E.L. Yushchenko, G.E. Tseitlin, V.N. Redko, etc.) developed these studies in the direction of axiomatization of algorithmic algebra systems as the basis of schematology of structural programming and universal programming logics.

V.M. Glushkov, G.E. Zeitlin and E.L. Yushchenko "Algebra, languages, programming" 1978.

The systems of algorithmic algebras (SAA) apparatus was used to formalize the semantics of the address language (also developed by the V.M. Glushkov school as part of the work on programming automation), in the development of the implementation of the address language on"Dnepr-2", a model of a two-way parallel analyzer of theKobol language on an EC computer, components of cross-systems software specialized mini- and micro-computers on EC computers. Aproject of programs "Analyst" was proposed for proving identities (theorems) in axiomatized system of algorithmic algebras (G.E. Zeitlin — 1979). In 1979-1983 V.M. Glushkov, G.E. Zeitlin, E.L. Yushchenko, V.P. Gritsai published their results on the analysis and synthesis of parallel programs, multilevel structural design of programs. The"MULTIPROCESSIST" system was developed — a structural synthesizer of algorithms and programs based on their projects, designed in the language of the ultra-high level of the SAA, implemented in 1981 in the DOS EC computer. These results were further developed in the method of multilevel structural design of classes of algorithms and programs (sequential and parallel), which is based on structural design grammars combining the SAA apparatus with parallel derivability mechanisms developed in the theory of language processors of the V.M. Glushkov school. In order to create integrated tools for the production of programs, this school proposed a combination of transformational methods (A.P. Ershov), inductive (Ya.M. Bardzin, A.I. Brazma, E.B. Kinber) and deductive (E.H. Tyugu) program synthesis.

Development of new computers and computer design automation system "PROJECT"

V.M. Glushkov saw ways to improve the technology of program development in the development of the algebra of algorithmic languages, i.e. the technique of equivalent transformations of expressions in these languages. He put a general mathematical and even philosophical meaning into this problem, considering the creation of the algebra of the language of a specific field of knowledge as a necessary stage of its mathematization. Comparing numerical and analytical methods for solving problems of applied mathematics, V.M. Glushkov argued that the development of general algorithmic languages and the algebra of such languages would lead to expressions in these languages (today's computer programs) becoming as familiar, understandable and convenient as analytical expressions are today. At the same time, the difference between analytical and general algorithmic methods will virtually disappear, and the world of computer models will become the main source of the development of new modern mathematics, as it is happening now.

Modern computers cannot be designed without automation systems for design work. The possibility of using computers in the process of designing computers became real after the corresponding sections of abstract and structural theory of automata were created in the early 60s, which allowed solving a number of problems arising in the process of designing electronic circuits. Further development of the computer design methodology required new techniques, in particular the development of block synthesis methods.The foundations of the theory of computer designwere laid in the articles of V.M. Glushkov, published in the journal "Cybernetics" in 1965-1966 and in the Bulletin of the USSR Academy of Sciences in 1967. It soon became clear that for the effective use of computers in the design process, a comprehensive solution of all the problems arising from design automation within the framework ofdesign automation systems (computer CAD) is necessary. Already in the early 70s, V.M. Glushkov, Yu.V. Kapitonova and A.A. Letichevsky noted a tendency to merge the computer design process with the design and development of their system software.

Based on the theoretical work of V.M. Glushkov at the Institute of Cybernetics, a language for describing computer algorithms and structures and a computer design methodology were created, which were implemented in a number of unique"PROJECT" systems("PROJECT-1", "PROJECT-EC", "PROJECT-MIM", "PROJECT-MVK"). The development of the experimental system "PROJECT-1" on the M-220 machine was completed in 1970. The more powerful system"PROJECT-2" was then implemented on the two-machine complex M-220, BESM-6 with a developed system of peripheral devices. The total volume of the PROJECT-2 system was 2 million machine commands. It was a distributed specialized software and hardware complex with its own operating system and a specialized programming system. In it, for the first time in the world, V.M.Glushkov, A.A. Letichevsky, Yu.V. Kapitonova automated (and with optimization) the stage of algorithmic design. A new technology for designing complex programs was developed — the method of formalized technical tasks. Over time, the "Project" systems were transferred to EC computers and became the prototype of CAD computers and CAD Large integrated circuits in many organizations of the former USSR.Monograph by V.M. Glushkov, Yu.V. Kapitonova and A.A. Letichevsky's "Computer Design Automation", summarizing the experience of creating "PROJECT" systems, was published in 1975. For their work on computer design automation, V.M. Glushkov, V.P. Derkach and Yu.V. Kapitonova were awardedthe USSR State Prize in 1977.

Victor Mikhailovich Glushkov

A great contribution was made by V.M. Glushkov to the creation of computer equipment, to the development of new architectures of computers and systems. In 1958, V. M. Glushkov proposed the idea of creating auniversal control machine. The idea was implemented in a wide—purpose control machine (UMSHN) in a record short time - three years. V.M. Glushkov and B.N. Malinovsky were the leaders of the work on the creation of UMSHN. The basic principles of the construction of the machine, formulated by V.M. Glushkov and B.N.Malinovsky: a semiconductor element base, highly reliable protection of programs and data, a small machine word size (26 digits) sufficient for process control tasks, and, most importantly, a universal communication device with an object. These principles were implemented both in the development of the UMSHN, later called theDnepr computer, and in the subsequent developments of other control machines. The transition from specialized control machines based on the technical base of the first generation (lamp) to universal semiconductor was important from the point of view of the organization of their industrial production and wide application in the automated control systems.

The first"Dnepr" computers were produced by the Kiev plant "Radiopribor". At the initiative of V. M. Glushkov, the construction of the VUM plant (later the Kiev NGO "Electronmash") was started in Kiev, which produced Dnepr machines for 10 years [2].

In parallel with the creation of the UMSHN, on the initiative of V.M. Glushkov, B.N. Malinovsky, A.I. Nikitin and V.M. Egypko, work was carried out tocontrol complex technological processes at a distance (using the Kiev computer): steel smelting in the Bessemer converter at the metallurgical plant in Dneprodzerzhinsk and the carbonation column at the soda plant in Slavyansk.

Another area of work of the Institute of Cybernetics in the field of computer technology became computers for engineering calculations. The first machine of this class was the computer "Promin", which was produced since 1963 at the Severodonetsk instrument-making plant. It was the first computer with step-by-step firmware control, for which V.M. Glushkov later received an author's certificate. It was followed by theMIR-1 (1965),MIR-2 (1969) andMIR-3 computers.

Their main difference from other computers was the hardware implementation of a machine language close to a high-level programming language. Computers of the MIR family interpreted the ALGOL-likelanguage "Analyst", developed at the Institute of Cybernetics under the leadership of V.M. Glushkov by A.A. Letichevsky, Yu.V. Blagoveshchensky, A.A. Dorodnitsyna. The MIR-1 computer development team headed by V. M. Glushkovwas awarded the USSR State Prize.

In the late 60s, under the leadership of V. M. Glushkov, the development of the "Ukraine" computer was started - the next step in the development of computer intellectualization and the development of high—performance mainframe architecture, different from the architectural principles of J. von Neumann. The computer "Ukraine" was not built due to the lack of the necessary element base at that time. The ideas put by V.M. Glushkov as the basis of the Ukraine project largely anticipated what was used in American mainframes of the 70s.Monograph "Computing machine with advanced interpretation systems" written by V.M. Glushkov, A.A. Barabanov, L.A. Kalinichenko, S.D. Mikhnovsky, Z.L. Rabinovich, was published in 1970. It contained a theoretical justification for the development of computer architecture in the direction of implementing high-level languages.

In 1974, V. M. Glushkov made a report on arecursive computer at theIFIP Congress (co-authors V.A. Myasnikov, M.B. Ignatiev, V.A. Torgashov). He expressed the opinion that only the development of a fundamentally new non-Neumann architecture of computing systems will solve the problem of creating supercomputers whose performance increases indefinitely with increasing hardware. The idea of building a recursive computer supported by a powerful mathematical apparatus of recursive functions was ahead of its time and remained unrealized due to the lack of the necessary technical base.

At the IFIP Congress in 1974 in Stockholm, V.M. Glushkov was awarded a special award —a silver core by the decision of the IFIP General Assembly. Thus, the scientist's great contribution to the work of this organization was noted as a member of the Program Committee of the Congresses of 1965 and 1968, as well as as Chairman of the Program Committee of the Congress of 1971.

In the late 70s, V. M. Glushkov proposed the principle of amacroconveyor architecture of a computer with many streams of commands and data (MIMD architecture according to modern classification) as a principle of implementation ofnon-Neumann architecture and received an author's certificate for this invention. The development of a macroconveyor computer was carried out at the Institute of Cybernetics under the leadership of V.M. Glushkov, S.B. Pogrebinsky (chief designer), V.S. Mikhalevich, A.A. Letichevsky, I.N. Molchanov. TheEC-2701 supercomputer (in 1984) and theEC-1766 supercomputer system (in 1987) were transferred to serial production at the Penza VEM plant. At that time, these werethe most powerful computing systems in the USSR with nominal performanceexceeding the milestone of1 billion op./s. At the same time, the multiprocessor system provided almost linear performance growth as computing resources increased and dynamic reconfiguration. They had no analogues in world practice and were the original development of the EC computer in the direction of high-performance systems. See them in action V.M. Glushkov didn't have to anymore.

Computers MESM, SESM, "Kyiv"

A Universal Small Electronic Calculating Machine (MESM) and a Specialized Electronic Calculating Machine for solving algebraic equations, the first matrix-vector processor in the USSR with a conveyor organization of calculations and a combination of data entry and calculations (SESM) were created according to the ideas of academician S.A. Lebedev, the first - under his direct supervision, the second - completed under under the leadership of academician B.V.Gnedenko, V.M. Glushkov took part in the formation of the results of these works and was the responsible editor of the book initiated by him "Specialized electronic counting machine SES" / Z.L.Rabinovich, Yu.V.Blagoveshchensky, R.Ya.Chernyak, A.L.Gladysh, I.T.Parkhomenko, I.P.Okulova, L.A.Mayboroda, S.S.Zabara. - Ed. Academy of Sciences of the Ukrainian SSR Kiev. 1961. -147s.

This book was republished in English in the USA and was one of the very first Soviet books on computing published abroad.

A Specialized Electronic Calculating Machine (SESM)

Computer "Kiev"

From the memoirs of V.M. Glushkov

... The Kiev computer played a significant role in the development of the Computer center's work, although it did not go into mass production. The Institute first entered the All-Union market with this computer, the second copy of the machine was bought by the International Institute of Atomic Research in Dubna. In 1956-1957, atomic physics was "booming", so working with this institute helped a lot and taught a lot. On the one hand, the Institute of Cybernetics was doing high science, and on the other, it was learning to work with industry.

In 1959, at the Computing Center of the Academy of Sciences of USSR, work was completed on the creation of the first Kiev mainframe computer in Ukraine.

It was on the Kiev computer, in addition to the effective solution of computational problems, that the first experiments on automated design of electronic circuits were carried out, tasks on recognition of visual images were solved, the first database "avtodirektor" operated, the experience of controlling the habits of the Bessemer converter in Dneprodzerzhinsk (for the first time in Europe) and the control of the soda carbonation process was carried out in Slavyansk. The customer of the second copy of the Kiev machine was the well-known Joint Institute for Nuclear Research in Dubna...

Computer "Kyiv"

Computer “Kyiv” - an electronic digital computer designed to solve a wide range of scientific and engineering problems. Developed in 1958. at the Institute of Cybernetics of the Academy of Sciences of the Ukrainian SSR on the initiative and under the guidance of B.V. Gnedenko, chief designer - L.N.Dashevsky. The development was initially carried out by the same team that created the MESM; V.S. Korolyuk, I.B. Pogrebysky, E.L. Yushchenko participated in the selection of operations — employees of the Institute of Mathematics of the Academy of Sciences of Ukraine. V.M. Glushkov joined at the final stage of technical design, assembly and adjustment of the machine and took an active part, being, together with L.N. p>

The machine was intended for the organized Computing Center, used for the first time in the USSR for research on remote control of technological processes.

Computer “Kyiv” represented a significant new word in computing — had asynchronous control, ferriteyu RAM, external memory on magnetic drums, input — decimal number output, passive memory with a set of constants and subroutines of elementary functions, a developed system of operations, including group operations with address modifications performed on complex data structures, etc.

Characteristics of the computer "Kyiv"

  • Parallel RAM based on ferrite cores with a capacity of 1024 words, RAM access cycle - 10 microseconds.
  • Reduced multiplication and division operations have been implemented.
  • The command structure is three-address.
  • To “Kyiv” For the first time, an address programming language was used as an input language for a translator. The system of machine operations - 32 operations, including access to the address of the 2nd rank and operations for setting cycles.
  • The form of representation of numbers is with a fixed comma before the most significant digit, the length of the machine word is constant, 41 binary digits.
  • Floating point mode is done by software.
  • A permanent (single-sided) memory of a ferrite-transformer type with a circulation cycle of 7 microseconds and a capacity of 512 words is designed to store replaceable-soldered programs.
  • The cycle of the machine is four-stroke, the duration of the cycle is variable, it depends on the type of operation and the memory used.
  • The parallel arithmetic unit includes a push-pull accumulator and 3 registers; addition time 6.6 microseconds, division time - 275 microseconds, average speed 15 thousand operations per second.
  • The external memory consisted of three magnetic drums with a total capacity of 9 thousand words with an access time of 120 microseconds.
  • Element base - impulse-potential (tube elements).
  • Data input is carried out from punched tapes, punched cards, telegraph communication lines, continuous-to-discrete converters, graph readers.
  • Output device - digital printer or punch.

Computer "Kyiv" became the first system in Europe for digital image processing and modeling of intellectual processes. 

On the computer "Kyiv" under the direction of V.M. Glushkov in the late 50s - early 60s, a series of works on artificial intelligence was carried out, in particular, learning to recognize simple geometric shapes (V.M. Glushkov, V.A. Kovalevsky, V.I. Rybak), modeling readers automata for handwritten and typewritten characters (V.A. Kovalevsky, A.G. Semenovsky, V.K. Eliseev), tracking the movement of objects on a series of images, or cinematography (V.I. Rybak), modeling the behavior of a group of automata in the process of evolution (A.A. Dorodnitsyna, A.A. Letichevsky), automatic synthesis of functional circuits of computers (Yu.V. Kapitonova), the first database of the relational type "Autodirector" (V.G. Bodnarchuk, T.A. Grinchenko), etc. .


Computer "Dnepr"

The principles of construction of the Dnepr computer, its main parameters, structure and architecture were determined by its purpose - management of a wide range of production processes.

The main ideas that formed the basis for the development of the Dnepr computer are as follows:

  • the computer must be semiconductor,
  • transportable,
  • with highly reliable protection,
  • low-bit (26-bit - then it was enough to control the technology in most processes).

The main feature of the computer was the presence of a universal communication device with the object - USO - a set of analog-to-digital and digital-to-analog converters controlled from the machine, with which the machine was connected to the production process.

From left to right: V.I.Skurikhin, L.A.Korytnaya, L.A.Zhuk, V.S.Kalenchuk, V.M.Glushkov, B.N.Malinovsky


During the development of the USO, the need for standardization of electrical signals at the output of measuring instruments and at the input of serving mechanisms acting on the process immediately became obvious. Only in this case, the creation of an RCD designed to receive many input and output many output signals became possible.

In the process of developing the computing part (arithmetic device and memory) the computer created a ferritic memory on miniature cores. The memory device on miniature ferrite cores was the first in the country and provided high reliability and small size of the machine.

For the input-output device of programs and data, a data input device with punched tape and digital printing with an electric drive were widely used at that time.

Characteristics of the computer "Dnepr"

Date of creation:1961

Purpose: The digital semiconductor control computer of a wide purpose "Dnepr" was developed at the Institute of Cybernetics of the Academy of Sciences of the Ukrainian SSR. Designed for monitoring and controlling continuous technological processes and complex physical experiments, as well as for studying processes during their algorithmization

  • Command structure: two-address
  • Number system: binary
  • Method of representation of numbers: with a comma fixed before the highest digit
  • Bit depth: 26 binary digits, of which one is the highest -signed
  • Performance: when controlling (on/ off) - 50,000 operations / sec; when adding and subtracting - 20,000 operations /ec; when multiplying and dividing - 4000 operations/ sec. Average speed of 10000 operations/sec.
  • Command system: 88 commands
  • Input devices: from telegraph punched tape (17.5 mm) at a speed of 45 digits/sec, from the keyboard of the telegraph machine and from communication lines
  • Types of elements used in the computer: pulse-potential
  • Occupied area: 35-40 sq. m. meters

• Power consumption: 4 kW

Creators of the computer "Dnepr" (UMSHN):

Certificate of registration N 30882

Issued by the Committee for Inventions and Discoveries under the USSR Council of Ministers on the recommendation of the Institute of Cybernetics of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR.

Work under the name "Wide-purpose control machine UMSHN"

Project managers:

Glushkov Victor Mikhailovich (scientific supervisor), Malinovsky Boris Nikolaevich (chief designer).

Project team:

G.A.Mikhailov, N.N.Pavlov, B.B.Timofeev, A.G.Kukharchuk, E.S.Oreshkin, V.S.Kalenchuk, L.A.Korytnaya, V.M. Egypko, L.A. Zhuk, S.S.Zabara, L.Ya.Pripada, E.P.Raichev, N.M.Abakumova, L.A.Rusanova, G.I.Kornienko, F.N.Zykov, V.S.Lenchuk, I.D.Voitovich, V.V.Kraynitsky, A.A.Pushchalo, Yu.T.Mitulinsky, E.P.Dragaev, A.I.Tolstun, M.A.Ermolenko, N.K.Babenko, E.F.Kolotushchenko.

From the memoirs of V.M. Glushkov

... Simultaneously with theoretical research at the Institute of Cybernetics of the Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, work was launched on the creation and application of computer technology in Ukraine. At that time, the simplest analog computing devices were used to automate the control of technological processes. A special device was created for each process. And mainly for those described by differential equations (not very complex).

Therefore, when I put forward the idea of creating a universal control computer (UMSHN) at the All-Union Conference in Kiev in 1958, it was met with hostility. Many specialists in the field of computer technology unanimously opposed it. The fact is that at that time the universal machine was necessarily represented by a lamp, and this required huge halls, air-conditioned air, i.e. it was not linked in any way with production and process control.

The development of the machine was entrusted to B.N. Malinovsky, he was the chief designer, and I was the scientific supervisor. The work was completed in record time: from the moment the idea was expressed at a conference in June 1958 to the moment the computer was put into production in July 1961 and installed in a number of productions, only three years passed. As far as I know, this result remains a world record for the speed of development and implementation until now. In parallel with the creation of the UMSHN, which later received the name "Dnepr", a large preparatory work was carried out with the participation of a number of Ukrainian enterprises on its application for the management of complex technological processes. As an experiment, for the first time in Europe, on my initiative, remote control of the Bessemer process was carried out for several days in a row in the mode of the master's adviser. Research has begun on the use of Dnepr machines for the automation of plaza work at the Mykolaiv plant named after 61 communards. B.N. Malinovsky, V.I. Skurikhin, G.A. Spynu and others participated in them.

"Dnepr" became the first Soviet semiconductor machine (except for special machines), it perfectly withstood various climatic conditions, shaking, etc. Then it turned out that the Americans had started work on a universal semiconductor control machine similar to the “Dnepr” a little earlier than us, but they put it into production in June 1961, at the same time as us. So this was one of the moments when we managed to reduce to zero the gap that exists in relation to American technology, albeit in one, but very important direction. Note also that our computer was the first domestic semiconductor computer (except for special computers).

This first universal semiconductor computer, which went into production, also broke another record - the record of industrial longevity, since it was produced for ten years (1961-1971), whereas this period usually does not exceed five or six, after which serious modernization is required. And when, during the joint space flight "Apollo-Soyuz", it was necessary to put in order the showroom in the Mission Control Center, then after a long selection of machines that existed at that time (in 1971 or 1972 this work began) the choice still stopped at the “Dnepr”, and two cars controlled a large screen on which everything was displayed - docking, etc. (the system was made under the guidance of A.A. Morozov). This computer was exported and worked in many socialist countries.

The first computers "Dnepr" were produced by the Kiev plant "Radiopribor". Simultaneously with the development of the Dnepr machine, a plant of computing and control machines (VUM) - "Electronmash" began to be built in Kiev, on the initiative of the Institute of Cybernetics, supported by the government. So the development of "Dnepr" marked the beginning of a large computer manufacturing plant...

Computers of the MIR series

The history of computer technology does not even count sixty years. But there are so many events in this very short interval that the time separated from us by four decades seems almost legendary. It was then that the world's first personal computer was created in Kiev at the school headed by Victor Mikhailovich Glushkov. However, it was distinguished from the now familiar desktop computer by its much larger size. The finest hour of microelectronics had not yet come, and the potential semiconductor elements on which the MIR computer (a Machine for Engineering Calculations) was built determined its size.

But the most amazing thing was still the idea of the creators of this computer. The high level of the internal language, the developed means of dialogue with the user, the developed operating system, the effective system of microprogramming provided the computer MIR with high machine intelligence and were far ahead of the then level of world computing technology. Since 1969, when the MIR-2 computers and its subsequent modifications began to be mass-produced, users were able to solve their tasks in the mode of direct interaction with the computer.

Computer MIR-1.

Computer MIR-2.

Computer MIR-3.


The developers of the MIR computers solved rather difficult and unusual tasks of equipping these machines with the necessary software tools for their work, some of which were transferred to the level of hardware and software implementation during the creation of computers with the help of microprogramming. At this crucial stage, the external and internal languages were joined. The effectiveness of the docking determined the effectiveness of the plan. And it was here that new ideas were born, which became the basis of the ANALYTIC language focused on the automation of analytical transformations.

ANALYTIC, apparently, was the first programming language that dealt not with linearly ordered records of algorithms, but with texts in which the linear order is not rigid. That is why there are opportunities in it that did not find their development in the 60s, because the time has not yet come for them. The idea that most texts are network formations, hypertexts and capable of generating many different linearly ordered texts had not yet arisen. But now that hypertext technology has taken an important place in the practice of solving problems on computers, such capabilities of the ANALYTIC language are becoming very transparent.

The history of the MIR computers is a unique event, one of the most remarkable pages in the history of computers. V.M. Glushkov's outstanding contribution to the creation of the MIR series of computers is determined not only by the fact that he formulated and theoretically justified concepts that were ahead of their time, but also by the atmosphere of creative uplift created by him, which contributed to the effective implementation of the project and left an indelible mark in the memory of all developers.

From the memoirs of V.M. Glushkov

... In 1959, I had a program of work on machines for engineering calculations. It was started with the development of a digital computing machine. And in 1963, we launched the Promin computer into mass production.

When it was ready, the Severodonetsk Plant of Computers  began to produce it. It was essentially a new word in world practice, had a number of technical innovations, in particular memory on metallized cards. But most importantly: it was the first widely used machine with the so-called step-by-step firmware control (for which I later received an author's certificate).

Unfortunately, we did not patent the new control scheme, since we were not a member of the International Patent Union at that time and could not patent and acquire licenses. Later, step-by-step firmware control was used in the MIR-1 computer for engineering calculations, created after the Promin computer (in 1965).

In 1967, at an exhibition in London, where the MIR-1 machine was demonstrated, it was bought by the American firm IBM, the largest in the United States, which is a supplier of almost 80% of computing equipment for the entire capitalist world. This was the first (and, unfortunately, the last) purchase of a Soviet computer by an American campaign.

In 1969, a new, more advanced MIR-2 computer was put into production. Then the MIR-3 computer was developed. They had no competitors in terms of the speed of performing analytical transformations. The MIR-2 computer, for example, successfully competed with mainframes of the usual structure, surpassing it in nominal speed and memory capacity by hundreds of times. For the first time in the practice of domestic mathematical engineering, an interactive mode of operation using a display with a light pen was implemented on this computer.

COMPUTER MIR-2.  I/O device with a light pen (prototype of a modern touchscreen)

In small computers of the MIR series (MIR-1, MIR-2, MIR-3), it was possible to fully implement the hardware implementation of high-level languages. The structural interpretation of the high-level languages MIR and ANALYTIC allowed us to obtain an effective implementation of working with real numbers of arbitrary bit depth, integers of unlimited bit depth and precise operations on fractional rational numbers, etc. In the MIR-2 computer, operations were performed not only on numbers, but also on arbitrary algebraic expressions, which were considered up to the basic relations of the algebra of analysis (including relations for transcendental functions). The structural implementation of analytical transformations provided such a significant increase in productivity that for a number of specific analytical tasks, their solution time on the MIR-2 computer turned out to be comparable to the solution time on traditional architecture computers with nominal performance hundreds of times higher than the MIR-2 performance.

Each of these computers was a step forward in the direction of building a reasonable computer - our strategic direction in the development of computers.

Computer "Ukraine"

The principle of structural interpretation of a high-level language (HLL), proposed and developed by V.M. Glushkov and his school even before the introduction of the concept of machine intelligence, fully and in the best way justified itself, since it allowed a specially developed problem-oriented engineering calculations containing analytical transformations to be used very effectively as a machine language. In MIR computers, this principle was implemented by firmware, which, combined with a purely sequential computer architecture, made it possible to provide a combination of high machine intelligence with low hardware costs. And if we also take into account the presence of a display with a light pen in the car (this is the first time in the world according to literary data), then the world can be considered the world's first computer of the type of current personal computers, but in its linguistic characteristics it still exceeds them.



In the creation of MIR computers , the remarkable foresight of V.M. Glushkov was manifested, who personally drew up an advance project of the first model of MIR, in which he outlined the basic principles of building such computers as machines of a new type with the implementation of high-level language in them in a structural way. The principle of structural interpretation of high-level language was proposed by V.M.Glushkov and the participants of his school in 1962 (even before the creation of the MIR computers) and was first published in 1965.

It is characteristic that the first proposal, issued in the form of an author's application (and then a closed certificate ), referred to the implementation of high level language in a high-performance (i.e., large in the terminology of the time) computer with a high degree of versatility. Our proposals were widely discussed by the scientific community as "revolutionary". Some doubts were expressed about the possibility of creating such a high-performance machine at that time. Such doubts were also expressed in a foreign forecast based on the insufficiency of the element base at that time.

V.M. Glushkov decided, as it turned out later, the only correct solution to this scientific and strategic problem: to force the creation of a small computer MIR in every possible way (as computers for mass use) and at the same time to carry out a detailed development of a universal high-performance computer with an internal language similar to ALGOL-60, expanded by including array processing tools in it, strings and words of variable bit depth, as well as computational process controls. The choice of ALGOL-60 as the main input language of the computer was due to its advanced level at that time, universalism and widespread (in order to be able to effectively use the accumulated user support).

This computer was named "Ukraine", but it was implemented only at the level of a technical project, supported by layout and modeling. The project contained the embodiment, along with the principle of direct structural interpretation of high level language, of a number of other related advanced ideas - a virtual memory field dynamically mapped into multi-stage physical memory, fully automatic addressing, a widely developed set of operations with parallel and sequential execution, combining management and information processing processes, etc.

The project was subjected to a tough discussion in the Ministry of Radio Industry, was fully approved and sent to a number of leading organizations for possible use. Thus, the idea of implementing high level language not only in small, but also in high-performance computers has become generally recognized and has been reflected in several advanced domestic developments.

Unfortunately, the computer "Ukraine" was not built at the Institute of Cybernetics and was not put into mass production, due to the following reasons:

- the lack of a sufficiently miniature and high-speed hardware at that time;

- difficulties in financing.

The latter circumstance was aggravated by the fact that the country's need for high-performance computers was already largely satisfied due to the launch of BESM-6 serial computers developed at the Lebedev Institute and located at the most advanced edge of the world computing technology. And although this computer did not reach the level of intelligence envisaged in "Ukraine", it had a very effective architecture, including a developed internal language.

Therefore, V.M. Glushkov, in the light of the state approach peculiar to him, did not insist on the expensive creation of the "Ukraine" machine, which would differ favorably from the BESM-6 only with increased intelligence due to the structural interpretation of the input high level language. By this time, the problem of intelligence, especially acute for the mass use of computers by specialists of various specialties, was already largely solved by the serial production of the MIR computers.

The development of the computer "Ukraine" was an important milestone in the development of the scientific school of V.M. Glushkov in the field of computer technology. The ideas laid down in the project anticipated many of the ideas used in American computers of the 70s. Based on the materials of the development, a monograph "A computer with advanced interpretation systems" was prepared, the authors of which are V.M.Glushkov, A.A.Barabanov, S.D.Kalinichenko, S.D.Mikhnovsky, Z.L.Rabinovich, published in 1970.


From the memoirs of V.M.Glushkov

... The basis of our further work on computer architecture, I put a consistent rejection of the well-known von Neumann principles (sequential structure of the language, i.e. execution of commands one after another; command-address principle, i.e. the command contains the addresses of operands, and commands are stored in the same way as operands in memory; maximum simplicity of the system commands, i.e. maximum simplicity of the computer language. We can talk about other principles, but these are the main ones). The appearance of such principles is not surprising. In the era of lamp machines, when each digit of an arithmetic device is at least one triode, a simple machine with simple commands was needed.

However, even then I foresaw the development of microelectronics and the fact that the structural elements would be manufactured in a single technological process and would cost very cheap. Back then, I formulated such a goal for physicists: compositional construction of a solid body to create a computer environment. In this case, von Neumann's principles are unacceptable. As one of the new principles, I proposed a complicated computer language, because compiling systems were becoming more complicated, and it was necessary to simplify programming from both ends, from the point of view of languages and compilers, i.e. to bring the computer language closer to the input. Having partially implemented this idea in the MIR series of computers, we began to develop it further in accordance with the principle of gradual complication of the computer language, and not just complication, but approximation to the human language. The limit I set was a conversation with the machine in natural language (and the issuance of tasks)...


The development of a multiprocessor computer - a macroconveyor - turned out to be one of the last acts of V.M.Glushkov. The MACROCONVEYOR represented a new word in computing technology - it had a widely deployed parallel architecture based on the use of relatively low-power, i.e. small processors, several tens of times more of them and, accordingly, a new, so-called macroconveyor organization of the computing process.

The implementation of macroconveyor computing in multiprocessor computers required the development of a new mathematical apparatus for parallel computing, to which V.M. Glushkov paid much attention in the last years of his life. These studies were conducted in two mutually complementary directions.

The first direction was the development of complex operations on large data structures (arrays, files, composite objects, etc.) and the study of methods for their parallel implementation. This direction turned out to be closely related to the theory of periodically-defined functions, developed by V.M. Glushkov in the 60s to describe parallelism at the level of micro-operations. The development of the apparatus of periodically defined transformations led to the creation of a new algebra of data structures, which made it possible to develop a general theory of operations on arrays and create an effective programming technology for multiprocessor computers.



The second direction is related to the dynamic parallelization of sequential programs. The idea proposed by V.M.Glushkov is to use structured programs for parallelization, presented as expressions of the algebra of algorithms.

These ideas have found their implementation in high-performance multiprocessor computers with macroconveyor computing organization. Although five years ago the need for the development of supercomputers was questioned, at present it is already clear that the world computer building in the field of high-performance computers has followed this path.

In terms of performance, the MACROCONVEYOR surpassed Elbrus (S.A. Lebedev, ITM and VT).

Unfortunately, despite the production of experimental and serial samples, the complex was not put into mass production due to the beginning of "perestroika" (which also interrupted the completion and launch of other promising developments of the Institute of Cybernetics, carried out at the state level).


Supervisors: V.M. Glushkov, V.S. Mikhalevich

Chief Designers: S.B. Pogrebinsky, A.G. Kukharchuk

Deputy Chief Designers: V.D. Losev, V.P. Klimenko

Heads of directions: Yu.V. Kapitonova , A.A. Letichevsky, I.N. Molchanov

Developers: Reutov G.V., Alexandrov V.Ya., Orlova I.A., Pereloma A.A., Burachenko T.E., Borsch N.S., Mayboroda V.T., Gritskov V.Ya., Shmidsky Ya.K., Dorodnitsyna A.A., Reznik A.M., Kalnenko V.P.

From the memoirs of V.M.Glushkov

... Automating the proof of theorems is my blue dream, it forms the basis in my thoughts about the architecture of new computers capable of carrying out complex creative processes, including the construction of deductive theories.

It is from here that new ideas of computer construction follow. And only a person who is engaged not only in computer, but also in artificial intelligence can understand how to build such computer. This is our strength.

In addition to complicating the machine language, we tried to move from the sequential command execution principle proposed by Neumann to the multi-command one. It took a lot of work until the idea of a macroconveyor came to mind, and it was possible, if not for each arithmetic device, then for the whole system as a whole to make a multi-command computer with many streams of commands and data.

The essence of the principle of macroconveyor data processing proposed by me is that each individual processor is given a task at the next step of calculations that allows it to work autonomously for a long time without interacting with other processors...


Modern computers cannot be designed without automation systems for design work. Based on the theoretical works of V.M. Glushkov, a wide front of work was deployed at the Institute and a number of unique "PROJECT" systems were created ("PROJECT-1", "PROJECT-EC", "PROJECT-MIM", "PROJECT-MVK") for computer-aided design of computers together with mathematical software. Initially, they were implemented on the KIEV computer, then M-20, M-220 and BESM-6 (with a total volume of 2 million machine commands), and eventually transferred to the EC computer.


The PROJECT-1 system, implemented on the M-220 and BESM-6, was a distributed specialized software and hardware complex with its own operating system and a specialized programming system. In it, for the first time in the world, the algorithmic design stage was automated (and with optimization). Within the framework of these systems, a new technology for designing complex programs was developed - the method of formalized technical tasks. The "PROJECT" systems were developed as experimental, real methods and methods of designing circuit and software components of computers were worked out on them. These methods and techniques were subsequently adopted in dozens of organizations developing computer technology. The customer was the Ministry of Radio Industry (CDB "Almaz" and NITSEVT). The developed systems became the prototype of real technological lines for the production of documentation for the production of computer chips in many organizations of the former Soviet Union.

The PROJECT-1 system is closely connected with the automation system for the design and manufacture of BIS using elion technology. In the department headed by V. P. Derkach (one of the first graduate students of V.M. Glushkov), the Kiev-67 and Kiev-70 systems were created that control the ion beam when processing various types of substrates with it. It should be noted that the indicators of these systems gave record parameters in microelectronics at that time. The PROJECT's design automation systems had a communication interface with Kiev-67 and Kiev-70, which made it possible to perform complex programs for controlling the ion beam, both during spraying and during graphic processing of substrates.

The main features of the development and implementation of computer design automation are the use of algebra calculations, discrete converters and other information processing tools. The system approach implemented in computer-aided design systems implies integrated consideration and presentation in the system of both objects and design operations at various stages of the design process with the necessary maintenance of the process itself. Moreover, these solutions should reflect not only existing technologies, but also their development in the future.

The creation of the information processing industry required a qualitatively new level of unification and typification of solutions for technical, mathematical, information and organizational support of systems, and this is primarily due to the use of mathematical apparatus in the design process.

Development managers: Kapitonova Yu.In, Letichevsky A.A.

The main developers of the PROJECT system: Grebnev V.A., Chebotarev A.N., Gorokhovsky S.S., Mishchenko N.M., Gorlach S.P., Kolbasin N.I., Chuikevich V.S., Godlevsky A.B., Lyabakh V.F., Mitchenko A.I., Mishchenko A.T., Morozov S.I., Parnitsky V.I. Pyatygin S.A., Rystsov I.K., Berestovaya S.N., Valkevich T.A., Doroshenko A.E., Krivoy S.L., Krat S.P.

Computer with punconfigurable architecture

V.M. Glushkov has repeatedly emphasized the importance of building computers on a modern element base, which allows designing promising architectures for machines of future generations. At present, the modern element base is microprocessors in combination with memory LSIs and programmable logic integrated circuits (FPGAs) or Programmable Logic Devices (PLDs), which should not only meet the requirements of a wide range of users, but also take into account the prospects for the development of computer technology. FPGA technology allows for a short period of time, without the use of finishing technologies, to implement almost any project of a digital device in a crystal, having only a personal computer and FPGA CAD. Therefore, the creation of promising domestic means of computer technology, not tied to technological production lines, with the possibility of reconfigurability, based on modern FPGA crystals, is an urgent scientific and technical problem.


FPGA-based reconfigurable systems are widely used in many areas: reconfigurable data processing; digital signal processing; image processing; communications; general purpose computing devices; verification.

FPGA is a programmable logic integrated circuit that combines the regularity of the structure of a semiconductor memory device with the versatility of a microprocessor, which allows you to programmatically form an internal specialized processor. Structurally, FPGAs are a homogeneous environment and have the following properties: homogeneity, reconfigurability and parallelism of operations. Parallelism - increase in speed, is achieved by increasing the clock frequency and by parallel execution of a large number of operations. Reconfigurability - reliability, flexibility and structural versatility (the ability to create an appropriate structure for each task) are provided in hardware by changing the links between the elements and the functions of the elements themselves. Homogeneity - the simplicity of manufacturing technology when using the same elements and the same type of connections between them.

Today, FPGAs have gone from simple PLA elements (programmable logic arrays) to complex FPGAs - CPLD (Complex Programmable Logic Devices) and FPGA (Field Programmable Gate Array). Xilinx's Virtex-II-Pro dies are available with capacities up to 10 million system gates, which have a huge advantage in logical capacity over previous FPGA dies. Within the next three to four years, devices with a capacity of 50 million system gates will be offered - enough logic to form complex, high-performance systems on a single chip.

The essential advantage of FPGAs is their versatility and the ability to quickly program (configure) for a given project. The availability of design automation tools that are extremely convenient for the developer allows you to quickly and efficiently develop, verify and debug a project at one workplace, using a PC or a workstation as the main technical tool.

The possibility of multiple reprogramming (configuration) allows you to make changes to an already finished, functioning product or use this product to perform various functions depending on the loaded project.

The Virtex die family (including the Virtex, Virtex-E, Virtex-EM, Virtex-II, Virtex-II-Pro series) is optimized for both hard and soft cores. Hard cores (such as PowerPC) are specialized areas of the FPGA chip dedicated to certain functions, in which blocks of a fixed structure are created that are optimized for a given function.

The accumulated experience has allowed FPGA manufacturers, relying on the experience of hardware developers, to recommend FPGAs to replace microcircuits of a small and medium degree of integration in the implementation of standard combinational ones (encoders, decoders, adders, code converters, comparators and etc.) and sequential (registers, shift registers, counters, etc.) functional nodes, as well as glue logic. For this purpose, CORE Generator is introduced into the FPGA CAD system - a tool that provides the user with parametric logical "kernels" optimized for FPGA crystals.

It should be noted that the CORE system, thanks to the use of network technologies, can significantly reduce the development time for new projects. In accordance with the formulated technical requirements, a designer can obtain an FPGA-optimized logic core over the Internet and include it in his project.

When designing digital devices based on FPGAs of varying complexity - from simple PLDs to CPLDs and FPGAs, hardware description languages (HDLs) are widely used. The most popular HDL languages are VHDL, Verilog and Abel.

Reconfigurable Computing. The rapid development of modern technologies and the production of highly integrated FPGAs has led to the creation of new directions in "Computer Science" - "Reconfigurable Computing" and "IRL - Technology". The term "Reconfigurable Computing" generally refers to the concept of both a reconfigurable computer structure (hardware) and the data processing process performed by the computer. The IRL (Internet Reconfigurable Logic) technology provides for the possibility of reconfiguration (including remote, via the Internet) of the structures of computing devices included in this network and implemented on the element base of an FPGA type FPGA.

Theoretical foundations and examples of practical implementation of computers with a flexible (programmable) architecture, which uses the mechanism of microprogram emulation as a tool for restructuring the architecture, primarily the processor, were developed under the guidance of A.V. Palagina. This provides tuning to various internal languages, compatible in terms of bit depth, popular at that time mini-computer models (DEC, H / P, etc.), i.e. the result was a kind of "polyglot machine" that could "digest" software implemented in various internal languages (command systems), creating the problem-oriented configurations necessary for each specific application. Another application of the flexibility property was the development of the internal language of the basic models of one of the well-known families of original microcomputers as an effective means of increasing their performance.

The main component of the architecture of this class of computers was a flexible hierarchical control system using the original "emulator" of command formats at the lower, microprogram level of control.
The theoretical basis for the development and evaluation of the effectiveness of a computer control system was the proposed logic -informational design method. In accordance with the logical concept of the logical-information model, the processor is represented by a well-known composition of the operational and control automaton. In accordance with the information concept, the processor is considered as an information system, all information in which is assigned to three "spheres" of states: storage, transportation, and transformation. Thus, with certain relationships between information objects in these areas, it is possible to obtain the optimal technical parameters of a computer.

An important quality of a computer with a flexible architecture is the degree of flexibility, or the level of programmable components. It is they that determine the range of technical solutions and properties of architectures, each of which is effective in its own, quite specific, class of problems. In this case, the level of programmable components descended to the functional units of the computer control system, so it can be conditionally called the "automatic" level. The basic components at this level in the 70s were PLA programmable logic arrays.

With the advent of modern FPGA chips with a capacity of more than 100,000 logic gates, it became possible to use the results obtained to build reconfigurable computers with a fully programmable architecture. In reconfigurable computers (computers with a programmable architecture), a processing field of a given dimension is fixed, configured specifically to execute a certain given algorithm or part of it, thus ensuring that this algorithm is implemented in an optimal way, bearing in mind both its execution time and the cost of hardware resources. The algorithm can be divided into fragments that are executed sequentially, and therefore, the structures corresponding to these fragments are also loaded into the crystal sequentially (in the order of their execution), which leads to significant resource savings. The complexity of the fragments of the algorithm is determined only by the logical capacity of the crystal, i.e. processing field dimension.

Thus, reconfigurable data processing is, to a certain extent, a change in the central design paradigm of modern computer technology and automation, and reconfigurable hardware is becoming a real and rapidly developing area of ​​computer technology. The process of configuring FPGAs, which form the basis of reconfigurable devices, can be implemented if there are appropriate configuration files obtained in the process of creating a project using CAD.

The differences between programmable microprocessors and FPGAs are gradually blurring. Modern FPGA chips include increased local memory, specialized multipliers and RISC processors (Power PC). Most likely, FPGA crystals will neverThey will not replace microprocessors for general purpose computing, but the concept of configurable data processing is likely to play an increasing role in the development of high-speed reconfigurable computing systems. Similar to Internet-connected computers that can automatically download software components to perform specific tasks, reconfigurable devices can download new hardware configurations as needed using IRL technology.

Principles of building reconfigurable systems

Currently under the direction of A.V. Palagin is working on creating a computer system with a reconfigurable (virtual) architecture, which is a problem - oriented configuration in relation to each specific task. The structure of a reconfigurable system consists of 2 parts: a permanent (or "fixed") part F - the host of the computer and a variable part V - the so-called "reconfigurable" equipment, which can be combined into various configurations. Equipment V is also divided into two parts: the "standard" part, which is connected to F via the computer's standard host buses, and is represented by the motherboard with a local internal bus for connecting the "non-standard" part, which is a wide range of expansion modules. The operations performed in each of the parts are determined by the following characteristics: in F, the computation time and initial data; in V - also additional equipment necessary to perform the corresponding operations, the time of information transfer between computing modules and the time of system reconfiguration (loading soft cores into FPGA crystals).

In this system, the configuration is formed in such a way as to transfer the main work from the F - part of the system to specialized blocks (V - part), which are soft cores. For a strictly formulated computational problem (where all numerical procedures are uniquely defined) and a description of the characteristics of operations for F and V, it is required to organize a common structure ( ) and distribute calculations in such a way as to minimize the objective function (the sum of reconfiguration costs and computation time).

This problem is extremely complex, in essence it is a combinatorial problem of optimal synthesis. The limitation imposed by the finite volume of reconfigurable equipment does not allow one to obtain an unambiguous method acceptable for practice for finding the optimal solution. Therefore, a solution (close to optimal) is found by the method of successive approximations.

Structure reconfiguration has two phases. In the first one, only a part of changes, i.e. mechanical modification is not allowed. If the specified optimization criterion is not achieved, that is, the part does not have sufficient logical power and memory, or specific means of input-output of information, then a transition to the second phase is carried out. And further reconfiguration of the system is also performed mechanically (by installing expansion modules in the appropriate slots - the local bus slots of the motherboard).

Structural organization of reconfigurable processors. Reconfigurable processors (RP) are in the minimum configuration a printed circuit board with one or more custom FPGA chips (FPGAs), non-volatile memory for storing configuration files, elements for loading the configuration file (files) and one or more connectors for connecting external devices ( expansion modules). The type of non-volatile memory is determined by the scope of the RP: for dynamic configuration of the FPGA during operation, it is advisable to use Flash - memory, and in the absence of such a need - EPROM. The use of Flash-memory implies the presence of a control unit for this memory in the RP, which implements the loading of this memory with configuration files from an external source, as well as reading with random access of the required file and loading it.

Most data processing tasks require cache-memory as part of the RP. The memory must be accessed both from an external device (through the installed connector) and from the device implemented in the FPGA. In order to expand the memory, a connector for connecting additional memory is installed on the RP board. Cache - memory as part of the RP assumes the presence of a memory controller.
This type of RP is called carrier boards or motherboards, due to the fact that expansion boards can be connected to them. RPs are designed for industry standards such as PCI, CompactPCI, PMC (PCI Mezzanine Cards), DIME (DSP and Image processing Module for Enhanced FPGAs) and VME. The PMC specification allows expansion modules to be added to motherboards via the local PCI bus. Motherboards are connected to the standcomputer bus and work in coprocessor mode.

The set of main tasks in this area is formulated as follows:

- development of theoretical foundations for the principles of building reconfigurable digital structures based on a homogeneous environment, in accordance with this, build a system of formalized methods and algorithms for the synthesis of parametric modules, taking into account the features of their constructive and technological base;
development of the foundations the theory of adaptive logical networks (ALN) designed to solve a wide class of problems by direct structural implementation of algorithms for processing and mapping the input data set to the output data set due to their structural versatility, the structural organization of which is based on the requirements of dynamic reconfigurability, multilevelness and parallelism of data processing , which fully corresponds to the modern element base - FPGA;
- development of algorithms for adapting logical networks to given classes of tasks, including classification tasks, etc.;
- development of the structure of a reconfigurable processor, realizing its pipeline principle of data processing;
- development of basic library parametric modules by describing them in the VHDL language and the FPGA CAD circuit editor, including a threshold device, a Hamming adder, sorting devices, median filters, matrix multipliers and others;
- development of the fundamentals of the structural organization of neuro-like Hamming networks based on FPGA crystals.

The main differences between the results of work in this area are:

- orientation to the technological capabilities of domestic enterprises of computer engineering;
- the property of structural universality (in addition to algorithmic universality), which allows for each algorithm to create its own structural diagram in the universal functional field, which provides an equivalent display of the structural schemes of the algorithm and functioning processes, allowing you to change the logical structure of the device depending on the specifics of the problem being solved by reconfiguring the internal structure.

Reconfigurable systems will find wide use in the following applications:

- problem-oriented systems and coprocessors;
- telecommunications, image processing, digital signal processing;
- modeling algorithms and designing architectures of modern computers based on FPGA and ASIC chips;
- modern control systems associated with the performance of large amounts of calculations - control of technological processes, instrumentation, robots - manipulators, other real-time systems;
- knowledge - oriented systems - creation of automatic networks for syntactically - semantic analysis of texts, in particular, for the implementation of the model of the language picture of the world (LCM).

This direction is carried out within the framework of works that are a theoretical generalization of scientific and practical results obtained over more than a ten-year period of development of a number of digital devices based on FPGAs, carried out in the department of "Microprocessor Technology" of the Institute of Cybernetics. V.M. Glushkov National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine.

At the end of the 60s, under the leadership of V.M. — the next step in the development of computer intellectualization and the development of the architecture of high-performance universal computers, different from the architectural principles of J. von Neumann. Computer "Ukraine" was not built due to the lack of the necessary element base at that time. The ideas put by V. M. Glushkov at the basis of the project "Ukraine" in many respects anticipated what was used in the American mainframe computers of the 70s. Monograph «Computer with advanced interpretation systems» written by V.M. Glushkov, A.A. Barabanov, L.A. Kalinichenko, S.D. Mikhnovsky, Z.L. Rabinovich, was published in 1970. It contained a theoretical justification for the development of computer architecture in the direction of implementing high-level languages.

In 1974, at the IFIP Congress, V. M. Glushkov made a presentation on recursive computers (co-authorsV. A. Myasnikov, M. B. Ignatiev, V. A. Torgashov). He expressed the opinion that only the development of a fundamentally new non-von Neumann architecture of computing systems will solve the problem of creating supercomputers, the performance of which increases indefinitely with increasing hardware. The idea of building a recursive computer, supported by a powerful mathematical apparatus of recursive functions, was ahead of its time and remained unrealized due to the lack of the necessary technical base.

On the congreses IFIP in 1974 in Stockholm V.M. Glushkov, by decision of the IFIP General Assembly, was awarded a special award — silver core. Thus, the great contribution of the scientist to the work of this organization was noted as a member of the Program Committee of the 1965 and 1968 congresses, as well as as Chairman of the Program Committee of the 1971 congress.

At the end of the 70s, V. M. Glushkov proposed the principle of a macro-pipeline computer architecture with many command and data streams (MIMD architecture according to modern classification) as a principle of non-von Neumann architecture implementation and  received a patent for this invention. The development of a macro-conveyor computer was carried out at the Institute of Cybernetics under the direction of V.M. Glushkova S.B. Pogrebinsky (chief designer), V.S. Mikhalevich, A.A. Letichevsky, I.N. Molchanov. Supercomputer  EC-2701 (in 1984) and supercomputer system ES-1766 < /span> (in 1987) were transferred to mass production at VEM Penza Plant. At that time, these were the most powerful computing systems in the USSR with a nominal performance exceeding 1 billion op./s. At the same time, a multiprocessor system provided an almost linear increase in performance as computing resources increased and dynamic reconfiguration. They had no analogues in world practice and were an original development ES COMPUTER in the direction of high-performance systems. V. M. Glushkov did not have to see them in action.

V.M. Glushkov - an ideologist and one of the creators of the automated management information system industry in the USSR

V.M. Glushkov paid great attention to the work on the creation ofmanagement information systems (MIS) based on the use of computer technology. He was the main ideologist and one of the main creators of the management information system industry in the USSR. The main works of V.M. Glushkov and his school covered a wide range of applications: automated process control systems; automation systems for scientific research and testing of complex industrial facilities; automated systems for organizational management of industrial enterprises (ASU).

V.M. Glushkov, together with his students and colleagues, made a great contribution to the formation and implementation of the ideas of creatingautomated control systems for controlling technological processes, the development of appropriate theory, mathematical, software and special technical means for controlling technological processes in microelectronics, metallurgy, chemical industry, shipbuilding. Automation of experimental scientific research in the early 60s was associated with automation of measurements and processing of the received information using the controlcomputer "Dnepr". Then V.M. Glushkov proposed to develop automated problem-oriented laboratories with the help of academic institutes, including complexes of measuring instruments, computers (micro- or minicomputers) and measurement processing programs. 5-6 such standard laboratories were planned for X-ray diffraction analysis, mass spectrography and other experimental research methods used in chemistry, physics, biology. To process the results of complex nuclear experiments, such laboratories were proposed to be connected to remote computers such as BESM-6 or EC-1060. Since most scientific experiments are not limited to data collection and processing, but require fine-tuning of the experimental facilities themselves, V.M. Glushkov set the task of automating the setup operations of these facilities. By the efforts of specialists of the Institute of Cybernetics, tests for mechanical fatigue of materials were automated at the Institute of Strength Problems of the Academy of Sciences of the Ukrainian SSR, experimental studies at the Institute of Geology and Geophysics, the Institute of Oncology Problems of the Academy of Sciences of the Ukrainian SSR. Works on automation of tests of complex industrial facilities were carried out for the navy and aviation. For the future, V.M. Glushkov saw prospects in this area for the development of algorithms for deductive constructions so that the system not only processes measurement results, but also checks hypotheses and builds theories on this basis, i.e. performs the role of an artificial intelligence system in a given subject area.

The development of automated organizational management systems for enterprises was started under the leadership of V. M. Glushkov in 1963-1964. In 1967,the first management information system in the country -ASU Lviv was put into operation and recommended for replication for an enterprise with a mass production at theLviv television plant "Electron".

In 1970, when the system was already successfully operated, its creators V.M. Glushkov, V.I. Skurikhin, A.A. Morozov, V.V. Shkurba and others were awarded the State Prize of the Ukrainian SSR. After the creation of theLviv system, V.M. Glushkov set the task of creating not an individual, but a standard management information system for machine and instrument-making enterprises. In the early 70s, work was completed on the"Kuntsevo" system (for the Kuntsevo radio plant), which V.M. Glushkov proposed to lay the foundation for the creation of a management information system at the enterprises of nine defense ministries.

For the construction of standard management information systems, V.M. Glushkov in 1965 put forward the concept of a specialized operating system designed for systems with a regular flow of tasks, in contrast to the operating systems of IBM/360 mainframe computers, which solve random task flows and are good for the batch mode of computing centers. V.M. Glushkov's monograph "Introduction to Management Information Systems", which was devoted mainly to organizational management systems, was published in the second edition in 1974. It systematized the original results obtained by V.M. Glushkov in 1964-1968.

The work on the creation and implementation of management information systems in practice has not always been successful. The reasons for this phenomenon lay in the sphere of the planned socialist economy that was then in effect in the USSR, forcing enterprises to "drive the shaft of production" without caring about optimizing the technical and economic indicators of production, the quality of manufactured products, scientific and technological progress.

Since the late 60s, the creation of industrial management information systems (OASU) has become relevant. V.M. Glushkov, as the most qualified and authoritative specialist in this field, in the 70s was a scientific supervisor and consultant for many projects of large OASU, in particular in the defense industry. When the Interdepartmental Committee of nine branches and the Board of Directors of the Main Institutes of the defense industries for management, economics and computer science were created in the defense complex, V.M. Glushkov became thescientific director of the committee and the Council. He wasthe scientific directorof a number of large branch OASU, such as the OASU of the Ministry of Instrument Engineering, the OASU of the Ministry of Defense Industry, other OASU of the defense ministries, the Republican ASU in the Ukrainian SSR, ASU "Moscow", ASU "Olympiad-1980", ASU of the Armed Forces of the USSR and other systems.

Management Information Systems

From the memoirs of V.M. Glushkov

... A new stage in the development of automated enterprise management systems began in the second half of the 70s. These are the so-called complex automated management information systems , in which the issues of computer-aided design, automated technology management, automation of testing of finished products and automation of organizational management are organically merged into a single whole.

Such a complex automated management information system, the first in the country, is being created now for the Ulyanovsk Aviation Plant. V.I. Skurikhin and A.A .Morozov are doing it again, and almost all of A.A. Morozov's SKB are doing it. The next direction, which also did not arise immediately, although it originated a long time ago, is the development of the theory of automated management information systems for economic objects (enterprises, industries), as well as automatic systems for controlling various technical means.

Work on economic management began in 1962, with the creation of a draft design of a nationwide network of computing centers, and on specific automated production management systems (ASPS), starting from 1963 - 1964.

Then we began to think over the Lviv system (ASU) with a large-scale nature of production at a television factory in Lviv.

In 1965, I put forward the concept of a specialized operating system designed for systems with a regular flow of tasks plus a small percentage of irregular tasks. The fact is that the operating systems with which IBM-360 computers were supplied in 1965 and which solve random streams of tasks are universal for batch mode and are good for computing centers (relatively good, of course). And in the automated management information system, as a rule, we dealt with regular tasks, i.e. we knew that at some time such and such a task should come to the account. Therefore, we could use time anticipation for preliminary preparation of information so that when the task came to the account, the necessary information was already ready (magnetic tapes were twisted, and the first portion of information was transferred to RAM, etc.). To do this, a task schedule was introduced, and with the help of multi-programming, it remained only to fill in the gaps with the account irregular tasks or debugging new tasks that arise as a result of system development.

After the "Lviv system" in the late 60s - early 70s, we completed work on the "Kuntsevo" system (for the Kuntsevo radio plant). It was done in such a way as to cover almost most of the tasks in the group of instrument and machine-building industries.

We managed to sign relevant orders that 600 systems that were being developed at that time in nine defense ministries (machine-building and instrument-making) should be made on the basis of the Kuntsevo system…

  • • •

Victor Mikhailovich Glushkov played a huge role in shaping the ideas of creating automated management information systems. Under his leadership, the development of special technical means for controlling a number of technological processes in the metallurgical, chemical and shipbuilding industries, as well as for microelectronics, was carried out.

Analyzing the possibilities of computer technology and the problems of economics, V.M. Glushkov was the first to put forward the idea of creating automated management information systems for enterprises as the lowest element of an automated management system for the economy as a whole.

In 1962, V.M. Glushkov gave a lecture in Lviv on the possibilities of computers. The director of the Electron plant, S.O. Petrovsky, approached him and offered his plant as a testing ground for the creation of an automated management information system by the enterprise. Thus began the development of the country's first ASU, which was named "Lviv". The first stage of the system was commissioned by the State Commission in 1967. It was recognized as a model for enterprises with a mass nature of production and replication of this system began in all branches of the defense industry. More than 1000 such systems have been implemented.

In 1967, the country's first automated management information system (ASU) of an enterprise with a mass production character "Lviv" was commissioned and recommended for mass replication. Many of the principles underlying automated management information systems of other types have been worked out on this system. In 1970, V.M. Glushkov (with a team of authors) was awarded the State Prize of the Ukrainian SSR for this development.

In parallel with the Lviv system, the systems "Project", "Speed", "Turn", "Drawing" were developed, which automated individual product life cycles.

V.M. Glushkov, together with the teams of automated management information system developers, forms a new task - the creation of complex automated management information systems.

The first such system was developed for NPO Energia (Kaliningrad, Moscow region). Within its framework, the country's first flexible production system (GIS) was created, where only automatic machines and robots worked. This was a step towards the creation of automatic control plants, which the developers of the automated management information system were already beginning to dream about. Buran was made on this GIS. The system was awarded the USSR State Prize.

The creation of the NPO "Energia" Complex ASU lasted 5 years. The system was also adopted by the State Commission. This development was led by Academician of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine V.I. Skurikhin and A.A. Morozov.

At the end of the 60s, the automated management information system "Kuntsevo" was created under the leadership of A.A. Stogniy, which was also recognized as a model for its class of enterprises and recommended for replication.

The work on the Lviv system allowed to form a team of automated management information system developers. Among them are Skurikhin V.I., Shkurba V.V., Morozov A.A. and a number of others.

The ideology of the automated management information system becomes generally accepted in the 70s. And when a decision is made in the USSR on the construction of the Ulyanovsk Aviation Industrial Complex, at the same time, a decision is made on the creation of the Complex ASU for this enterprise. This was the first example of designing a huge industrial complex with a built-in automated management information system. The delivery of the Ulyanovsk Aviation Industrial Complex cash register was carried out simultaneously with the release of the first Ruslan aircraft by the enterprise. The chief designer of the system was A.A. Morozov.

The experience of creating a number of automated organizational management systems allowed V.M. Glushkov to formulate the task of a nationwide automated management system (OGAS).

The OGAS project - the world's first digital state project

In 1962, on the instructions of A.N. Kosygin, at that time Deputy Chairman of the Council of Ministers of the USSR, V.M. Glushkov began developing aproject for a nationwide automated system for collecting and processing information for accounting, planning and management of the National Economy (OGAS). Starting the creation of the OGAS project, V.M. Glushkov personally studied the work of more than a thousand objects of the national economy: factories of various industries, mines, railways, airports, supreme governing bodies — Gosplan, Gossnab, CSU, Ministry of Finance, etc. He worked on the application of macroeconomic models and methods of improving public administration techniques in OGAS, which was reflected in hismonograph "Macroeconomic models and principles of construction of theOGAS". V.M. Glushkov proposed the concept of OGAS as a unified system for collecting accounting information on the national economy, planning and management of the national economy, an information base for modeling various options for the development of the national economy.

The technical basis of the OGAS was to be aUnified State Network of Computing Centers (EGSVTS)[4]. In thepre-sketch project of the EGSVC, developed under the guidance of V.M. Glushkov in 1964, unlike the previous concept of the network proposed by economists led by V.S. Nemchinov, V.M. Glushkov justified the construction of a network of about 100 large centers in industrial cities and centers of economic districts connected by broadband communication channels with message switching and related 20 thousand centers of enterprises and organizations. The creation of a distributed data bank and the development of a system of mathematical models of economic management were envisaged.

Of course, V.M. Glushkov understood that with his plan he was challenging the usual canons of managing the country's economy. And indeed, the OGAS project submitted to the Government in 1964 met with sharp demagogic objections from the leadership of the CSU of the USSR (V.N. Starovsky), then it was processed for a long time in the CSU of the USSR, the State Planning Committee of the USSR, but it was never implemented. The incompetence of the top management of the country, the unwillingness of the middle bureaucratic level to work under strict control and on the basis of objective information collected and processed using computers, the unpreparedness of society as a whole, the imperfection of computer technology and communication tools that existed at that time, misunderstanding, and even opposition from economists prevented the creation of the OGAS. In fact, the concepts of the OGAS and the EGSVC, which correctly reflect in technical terms the rigidly centralized structure of the country's social structure, have met resistance from the public system itself.


V.M. Glushkov was certainly right when he set the task of informatization and computerization of the country more than 40 years ago. But in those conditions, he could not do anything without large-scale decisions of the Government and the Central Committee of the CPSU, which became a barrier on this path. In the archive of V.M. Glushkov there are quite a lot (on average one in two months) copies of notes to high party and economic authorities on the policy of development and use in the economy, defense capability, management of the country's economy, education achievements of computer technology and automated systems. According to his notes, it is possible to compile a list of unrealized cases that could not be carried out within the framework of the social system in force at that time. And this was a tragic part of his life. Like no one else, he understood that this leads to the death of the social system and, as further historical events have shown, the country as a whole.

V.M. Glushkov's civic position was active. More than 250 of his publications in popular scientific and public publications, regular cycles of lectures that he gave to the public and the top management of the country, testify to this.

From the memoirs of V.M. Glushkov

... The task of building a nationwide automated management system (OGAS) of the economy was set to me by the First Deputy Chairman of the Council of Ministers (then A.N. Kosygin) in November 1962. The president of the USSR Academy of Sciences, M. V. Keldysh, brought me to him, with whom I shared some of my thoughts on this matter.

When I briefly outlined to A.N. Kosygin what we wanted to do, he approved our intentions, and an order was issued by the Council of Ministers of the USSR to create a special commission under my chairmanship to prepare materials for a government decree.

In our country, all organizations were poorly prepared for the perception of processing economic information. The blame lay both on the economists, who practically did not count anything, and on the creators of the computer. As a result, there was such a situation that our statistical bodies and partially planned ones were equipped with calculating and analytical machines of the 1939 model, by that time completely replaced in America by computers.

Americans developed two lines before 1965: scientific machines (these are binary floating-point machines, high-bit) and economic machines (sequential binary-decimal with advanced memory, etc.). For the first time these two lines were connected in IBM machines.

I organized a team at our institute, I myself developed a program to familiarize them with the task set by A. N. Kosygin. I spent a week in the USSR CSU, where I studied his work in detail. I looked through the entire chain from the district station to the CSU of the USSR.

In 1963, I visited at least 100 facilities, enterprises and organizations of various profiles: from factories and mines to state farms. Then I continued this work, and in ten years the number of objects reached almost a thousand. Therefore, I have a very good idea, perhaps like no one else, of the national economy as a whole: from the bottom to the very top, the features of the existing management system, the difficulties that arise and what should be considered.

The understanding of what is needed from technology, I had quite quickly. Long before the end of the introductory work, I put forward the concept of not just individual state centers, but a network of computing centers with remote access, i.e. I put modern technical content into the concept of collective use.

We have developed the first draft of theUnified State Network of Computing Centers(EGSVC), which included about 100 centers in large industrial cities and centers of economic districts connected by broadband communication channels. These centers, distributed throughout the country, in accordance with the configuration of the system, are combined with the rest engaged in processing economic information. We estimated their number at 20 thousand at that time. These are large enterprises, ministries, as well as cluster centers serving small enterprises. The presence of a distributed data bank and the possibility of unaddressed access from anywhere in this system to any information after automatic verification of the authority of the requester was characteristic. A number of issues related to the protection of information have been developed. In addition, in this two-tier system, the main computing centers exchange information among themselves not by switching channels and switching messages, as is now customary, broken down into letters, but I suggested connecting these 100 or 200 centers with broadband channels bypassing the channel-forming equipment so that information could be rewritten from a magnetic tape in Vladivostok to the tape in Moscow without reducing the speed. Then all protocols are greatly simplified and the network acquires new properties. This has not been implemented anywhere in the world yet. Our project was secret until 1977 ...

Learn more about OGAS

V.M. Glushkov - pioneer of cybernetics

Viсtor Mikhailovich was a recognized authority in the field of cybernetics in the world. He formed on the basis of the works of N. Wiener, K.Shannon, A.I. Kitov, A.A. Lyapunov, S.L. Sobolev, I.A.Poletaev and others. his understanding of cybernetics as a scientific discipline, its methodology and the structure of research sections[3]. About this in the 60s, V.M. Glushkov wrote scientific articles in domestic journals, articles in the British Encyclopedia and in the American Technological Encyclopedia. V.M. Glushkov'smonograph "Introduction to Cybernetics" was published in 1964.

Cybernetics was widely interpreted by V. M. Glushkov as the science of general laws, principles and methods of information processing and management of complex systems. Computer technology was considered as the main technical means of cybernetics. This understanding was reflected inthe world's first "Encyclopedia of Cybernetics", prepared on the initiative of V. M. Glushkov and published in 1974 under his editorship. In 1978, the team of editors and those responsible for the sections of the encyclopedia was awarded the State Prize of the Academy of Sciences of the Ukrainian SSR. The encyclopedia covered: theoretical cybernetics (information theory, automata theory, systems theory); economic cybernetics (economic and mathematical models for management information systems of enterprises and industries, transport, etc.); biological cybernetics (models of the brain, human organs, regulatory systems of living organisms); technical cybernetics (management of complex technical systems); computer theory (principles of construction and design of computers and their software); applied and computational mathematics.

Artificial intelligence systems

M. Glushkov presented new ideas for building artificial intelligence systems such as"eye-hand", "reading automaton", "self-organizing system", automation systems of mathematical proofs. He worked on computer simulation systems for such intellectual activity processes as decision-making, mapping of conditions and situations in economic, technical, biological and medical systems. New directions of information science —informatics, proposed by V. M. Glushkov, have been developed.

V.M. Glushkov actively promoted a practical approach to the problem of artificial intelligence as a matter objectively brought to life by the growing power of computers and their penetration into all spheres of human activity. V.M. Glushkov's students and followers successfully develop his ideas and are engaged in research on structural pattern recognition, methods of analysis of images and speech signals, methods of structural analysis of scenes in the field of view of robots, are engaged in neurocomputer technologies and medical information systems. Glushkov believed that the consistent accumulation of knowledge and effective ways of processing them, the development of intellectual abilities of computers will provide a breakthrough in the development of civilization and ensure the transition to aninformation society.

From the memoirs of V.M. Glushkov

.. Artificial vision and hearing are an important part of the work in the field of creating artificial intelligence. The main thing here, of course, is vision, since a person receives the greatest amount of information thanks to it. For this reason, I invited V.A. Kovalevsky from Kharkov, who organized the work on pattern recognition. The first result of his work was an automatic machine for reading typewritten letters and numbers. It was released in a small series (five or eight pieces) because of the high cost, it was difficult for him to compete with punch cards. Then T.K. Vintsyuk took up speech recognition, with which we covered the direction of creating the sensory part of robots.

From the very beginning, I formulated the task of automating the motor function of robots. I was tasked with creating an automatic hand on a trolley that would move along the control panel of any object and switch toggle switches, turn knobs, etc., at the same time, primitive vision was added to it, which would be able to perceive only the position of the arrow of the instruments or the division of the scale. But, unfortunately, I could not find a person who would like to work with mechanics, hands. And I set this task back in 1959, when no one had mentioned robots yet. If we had good workshops, we could have been the first in the world to have a mechanical arm in 1963. Unfortunately, not everything can be done.

Synthesis of all these directions - in robot manipulators with a hand, vision and artificial speech. At the same time, we started work on recognizing the meaning of phrases in Russian, i.e. in the field of semantic networks, as it is now called. This was done by A. A. Stogniy and partly by A.A. Letichevsky, they achieved good results. A.A. Stogniy prepared good programs. According to the flow of sentences at the input, this algorithm built a semantic network, i.e. determined which words correspond to which. For example, the sentence "A chair stands on the ceiling", although grammatically correct, is semantically incorrect, etc. The rudiments of a picture of the world were made, and economical coding was invented; then A.A. Stogniy switched to the recognition of discrete images, the subject of Yu.I. Zhuravlev, and I left this case, and it died down with us. It was necessary to link it with machine translation, but again there were not enough people, and I could not deal only with semantic algorithmics. And yet, when I made a report on this topic at the IFIP Congress in Munich in 1962, it was a sensation - the Americans did not have anything like this at that time. At the same time, I was elected to the Program Committee of the International Federation for Information Processing.

Research in the field of artificial intelligence occupies a significant place in the scientific heritage of V.M. Glushkov.

Under his leadership, they were conducted on a broad front. There are also works on pattern recognition (visual, speech, language, etc.), research in the field of robotics, mathematical linguistics, information systems, etc. However, the closest problem for him, which he dealt with a lot directly himself throughout his cybernetic activity, was the automation of the search for proofs of theorems. Back in 1958, while studying A.I. Shirshov's doctoral dissertation as an opponent, V.M. Glushkov made an attempt to verify the identities found by A.I. Shirshov in rings and Lie algebras using a program on the Ural computer. He closely followed the work on the creation of logical inference search algorithms in the USSR and abroad, initiated relevant research at the Institute of Cybernetics. Under his leadership, in the early 60s, experiments were conducted on the machine implementation of the Tarski algorithm and some other algorithms for finding output in solvable theories.

The problem of evidence was associated with work on analytical calculations and their implementation in computers of the MIR series. These works were based on a solid material and technical base. In 1963, a Special Design Bureau of Mathematical Machines and Systems with a small pilot production was established at the Institute of Cybernetics of the Academy of Sciences of the Ukrainian SSR. The serial production of computers developed by the Institute of Cybernetics of the Academy of Sciences of the Ukrainian SSR, which arose on the basis of the Radiopribor plant, contributed to the organization of an independent plant of Computer Control Machines (VUM).

In addition to the work on increasing the "intelligence" of the computers being created, research was conducted in other areas during the period under review. Developing the idea of a man-machine dialogue in the automation of deductive constructions, a group of employees of the Institute of Cybernetics (A.A. Letichevsky, Yu.V. Kapitonova, Z.M. Aselderov, K.P. Vershinin, V.F. Kostyrko, etc.) led by V.M. Glushkov created a language of "practical" mathematical logic and a text processing system in this language, as close as possible to the practice of researchers in the relevant sections of modern mathematics (primarily algebra), as well as the first version of the machine algorithm of evidence. The problems of further increasing the evidentiary power of the machine part of the future dialog system were solved.

Theoretical research in the field of robotics was conducted under the leadership of V.I. Rybak. A working mock-up of an "intelligent" robot capable of visually identifying simple geometric bodies, carrying out their purposeful movement with the help of a computer-controlled "hand", etc. Theoretical studies have been conducted to improve methods of automatic speech recognition and synthesis. An experimental system for recognizing merged phrases with a dictionary of up to 300 words with a low probability of error has been created (V.A. Kovalevsky, T.P. Vintsyuk, etc.).

Under the leadership of N.M. Amosov, work continued on computer simulation of reasonable behavior. From the imitation of the activity of one person, a transition has been made to the imitation of the activity of collectives. In general, interest in the use of simulation modeling for the study of social processes has increased during this period. To this end, models with a wide range of applications have been developed and software development has begun (V.M. Glushkov et al.).

In the field of biological and medical cybernetics, research on bioelectric control of human movements continued. Multichannel bioelectric control devices of the Myoton series have been developed, which have been introduced into clinical practice, primarily for the treatment of paralysis (L. S. Aleev et al.). Together with the Kiev Research Institute of Clinical Medicine named after Academician N.D. Strazhesco develops simulation models for forecasting and management (in dialogue with a doctor) in the treatment of patients with myocardial infarction. An anamnesis automation system focused on ischemic disease has been created (V.M. Glushkov, V.A. Petrukhin, etc.).

Under the leadership of A.A. Popov, automated systems for processing medical information were created (in particular, for analyzing the function of the respiratory and cardiovascular system) and implemented in medical institutions of Yalta, Odessa, Slavyansk, Kislovodsk. An automated resort management system was developed (A.A. Stogniy, A.A. Popov, etc.). Research of biological objects and regulatory systems at the cellular and system level continued (Yu. G. Antomonov, K.A. Ivanov-Muromsky, etc.). The biomedical aspects are related to those conducted under the leadership of V.V. Pavlov studies of ergatic control systems.

By the end of the 60s, a new point of view was formed on the problem of finding evidence, the essence of which boils down to the following. First of all, it is necessary to develop a practical formal language for writing mathematical sentences and their proofs. It should be close to the natural language of mathematics and in fact represent a formalization of that part of the natural language in which books on mathematics are written. The implementation of the language of mathematics is the "evidence algorithm", which allows you to check the correctness of mathematical texts written in the language, if the proofs are sufficiently detailed, or to find gaps in them. On the basis of these tools alone, an intelligent information system was built, which allows you to accumulate knowledge and use it in the process of performing mathematical research. As for the discovery of new mathematical facts and the search for proofs of complex theorems, this should be done in an interactive mode using specialized deductive tools that are created on the basis of language, evidence algorithms and information systems.

V.M.Glushkov - pioneer of computer science

V.M. Glushkov developed the ideas of the information society. "Fundamentals of Paperless Computer Science" was the title of his last monograph, published in 1982. This book describes the mathematical apparatus and a set of ideas related to the problems of informatization of all aspects of life and the transition to an information society. He paid special attention to informatization of education. The OGAS concept largely anticipated the ideas of e-government, the digital state and the digital economy.

For his great contribution to the development of science and technology and the application of these achievements in the national economy, Victor Mikhailovich Glushkov was awarded the title of Hero of Socialist Labor, awarded many government orders and medals, including three Orders of Lenin, the Order of the October Revolution, the Order of the People's Republic of Bulgaria, 1st degree, the Order of the Banner of Labor of the GDR and others.

V.M. Glushkov was elected a member of the German Academy "Leopoldina", a foreign member of the Academy of Sciences of Bulgaria, of the GDR and Poland, an honorary doctor of the University of Dresden, an honorary member of the Polish Cybernetic Society. From 1962 until the end of his life he was Vice-president of the Academy of Sciences of the Ukrainian SSR.

Scientific schools of V.M. Glushkov

Many wonderful people worked under the leadership of V.M. Glushkov. He can rightfully be considered the founder of a school in the field of cybernetics and informatics, he has more than a hundred direct students who have defended candidate and doctoral dissertations. Under his leadership, the collective of the Institute of Cybernetics of the Academy of Sciences of Ukraine was formed, on the basis of which a Cybernetic Center was established in 1993, which includes the V.M. Glushkov Institute of Cybernetics, Institute of problems of mathematical machines and systems (former SKB MMS), Institute of software systems (former SKTB Software), Institute of Space Research, Institute of systems analysis and International Research Training Center. The team of students and followers of V.M. Glushkov includes many leading specialists working in Russia, Ukraine, Belarus, Uzbekistan and other CIS countries, in the USA, Germany, Bulgaria, Hungary.

Here is a list of some students of V.M. Glushkov in various fields of cybernetics, computer science and automated management information systems:

Computers and computer equipment

  • Letichevsky A. A.
  • Kapitonova Yu. V.
  • Palagin O. V.
  • Malinovsky B. N.
  • Samofalov K. G.
  • Voitovich I. L.
  • Ilchenko M. Yu.
  • Klyuchnikov O. O.
  • Lysenko V. S.
  • Machulin V. F.

Optimal control theory

  • Kukhtenko O.I.
  • Ivakhnenko O.G.
  • Kuntsevich V.M.
  • Samoylenko Yu.M.
  • Chikri A.O.
  • Krivonos Yu.G.
  • Melnik V.S.

Theory of programming and information technologies

  • Yushchenko E. L.
  • Korolyuk V.S.
  • Stogniy A.A.
  • Letichevsky A. A.
  • Redko V.N.
  • Andon A.P.
  • Perevozchikova O.L.
  • Lyashko S.I.

Computational methods

  • Sergienko I.V.
  • Skopetsky V.V.
  • Deineka V.V.
  • Velikiy A.P.
  • Lyashko I.I.

Automated management information systems

  • Skurikhin V. I.
  • Timofeev B. B.
  • Morozov A.O.
  • Parasyuk I.N.

Mathematical theory of reliability and computer modeling

  • Kovalenko I.M.
  • Marjanovich T. P.
  • Anisimov A.V.

Analog computing equipment

  • Petrov V.V.
  • Vasiliev V.V.
  • Evdokimov V.F. 

Computer engineering and cybernetics in biology and medicine

  • Amosov N.M.


V.M. Glushkov - organizer of science, teacher and public figure

Academician V.M. Glushkov conducted extensive and multifaceted scientific and organizational activities as director of the country's largest Institute of Cybernetics of the Academy of Sciences of the Ukrainian SSR, which he created in 1962 and which he led until the end of his days. In the late 1970s and early 1980s, the Institute of Cybernetics of the Academy of Sciences of the Ukrainian SSR employed more than five thousand employees who solved important fundamental and applied scientific and technical problems in the interests of various sectors of the economy and the Armed Forces of the USSR.

From 1962 until the end of his life he was Vice-President of the Academy of Sciences of the Ukrainian SSR.

Since 1963, V.M. Glushkov has been chairman of the Interdepartmental Scientific Council for the Introduction of Computer Technology and Economic and Mathematical Methods in the National Economy of the USSR under the State Committee of the Council of Ministers of the USSR for Science and Technology. He took an active part in the planning and management of scientific and technological progress in our country.

In the 1960s, V.M. Glushkov was an adviser to the UN Secretary-General on cybernetics and computer technology and their use in developing countries.

Academician V.M. Glushkov was an ideologist and one of the main creators of the management information system industry in the USSR, which employed about 800 thousand people. He was a scientific supervisor and consultant of many industrial and republican management information systems in the Soviet Union, in the People's Republic of Bulgaria and in the German Democratic Republic, organized the work of thousands of people. He was the scientific director of the interdepartmental committee and the Board of Directors of the main institutes of the defense industries for management, economics and computer science, defining the main directions of development of management information systems in these industries.

V.M. Glushkov was an active and talented popularizer of science, thousands of people listened to his lectures with great interest, he wrote more than 250 articles about cybernetics, computer science, computer technology, ACU, OGAS and the digital state, artificial intelligence and information society in popular scientific and socio-political publications.

V.M. Glushkov was a talented teacher. He began his career in 1948 as a teacher at the Ural Forestry Institute (Sverdlovsk, now Yekaterinburg). In 1957, he began working as a professor at the Taras Shevchenko Kyiv State University, where since 1966 he headed the Department of Theoretical Cybernetics created by him. He was one of the organizers of the Faculty of Cybernetics of Kiev State University, created the Kiev branch of the Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology and successfully taught at MIPT.

V.M. Glushkov was a deputy of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR of several convocations, conducted extensive public work, represented Soviet science abroad.

Victor Mikhailovich Glushkov was a charming, cheerful, sociable and encyclopediically educated person, fluent in English and German, knew and loved poetry, music, philosophy, physics, chemistry, astronomy, and was fond of radio engineering since childhood. He gave himself to the people he communicated with, created an aura of creative search, inspiration, and an amazing sense of involvement in new, important and interesting activities.

V.M. Glushkov on a fishing trip

V.M. Glushkov on a fishing trip

V.M. Glushkov has published more than 800 printed works. Of these, more than 500 were written by him personally, and the rest were written jointly with his students and other co—authors. This result of the scientist seems surprising, especially in connection with his own admission that he writes articles slowly and this is a difficult task for him. And when he is loaded with the duties of the director of the institute and consultant of many large systems projects in the USSR and his demands on the quality of scientific products, this is all the more surprising. The only explanation for this phenomenon is that V.M. Glushkov was a true ascetic in science, who possessed gigantic efficiency and diligence.

 V.M. Glushkov as a thinker was distinguished by the breadth and depth of scientific vision, with his works he anticipated what is now appearing in the modern information society. During his lifetime, he generously shared his knowledge, ideas and experience with the people around him. And, of course, he wanted to leave his scientific legacy to posterity. In January 1982, while in the intensive care unit, V.M. Glushkov dictated to his daughter Olga stories about his life path, summing up his creative biography. The text of these notes, together with an autobiography compiled from the stories of V.M. Glushkov in the early 70s to journalist V. P. Krasnikov about childhood, youth and the first years of scientific activity, is published in the books ofB.N. Malinovsky «Academician V. Glushkov. Pages of life and work»  and "The history of computer technology in persons" (chapter "The main business of life").

[1] American scientists Glisson, Montgomery, Tsippin, and the outstanding Russian algebraist A.I. Maltsev worked on the solution of Hilbert's fifth problem (is any locally Euclidean topological group a group with a suitable choice of local coordinates). V.M. Glushkov obtained a result stronger than American scientists, and by a simpler method that is better suited also for the study of the usual (and not generalized) fifth Hilbert problem. 

[2] In the USA, the development of a universal control machine was started somewhat earlier, but its launch into production was carried out in 1961, i.e. almost simultaneously with the Dnipro machine

[3] Even before arriving in Kiev, while living in Sverdlovsk, V.M.Glushkov read an article by S.L.Sobolev in 1956, A.I.Kitova and A.A.Lyapunov "The main features of cybernetics" and A.I. Kitov's book "Digital Computing Machines" - the first domestic textbook on programming, computers and their applications.

[4] It should be noted that since 1958, proposals for the creation of a unified state network of computing centers for managing the country's economy were formulated by A.I.Kitov in his works "Electronic computers", "Cybernetics and management of the national economy", etc. In 1959, he sent his project (the "Red Book") to the head of the USSR N.S. Khrushchev, in which he proposed the creation of the computer network for managing the economy and the armed forces of the country.